Progressed Synastry in 1300 Public Cases

(Iteration 1 2005, Iteration 2 2019)

By Paul Westran


The findings of an astrological research study conducted in 2005 were successfully replicated in 2019. The findings that are replicated are that at the beginning of a romantic relationship or marriage, the progressed Sun or Venus in one person’s chart is conjunct, trine or in opposition to the progressed or natal Venus or Sun in the other persons chart.1 2600 relationships were looked at in total divided in two separate studies of 1300 famous couples (2005 and 2019). The sets comprised 2557 heterosexual couples and 43 same-sex couples (21 all-female, 22 all male). No distinction was made between male or female in the study.

The statistical test was a chi-square test comparison to a control group of 2.6 million false relationships used to evaluate the results.

The following combination of planets and aspects were analysed:

SO-SO, SO-VE, SO-MA, VE-MA, VE-VE, MA-MA in aspects of 0, 30, 60, 72, 90, 120, 150 and 180 degrees with orbs of 2.017 degrees in the following combinations of charts: Natal-Natal (n-n); Natal-Progressed (n-p); Progressed-Natal (p-n) and Progressed-Progressed (p-p).

None of the other combinations produced statistically significant excess results in either 2005 or 2019 except for VE-MA oppositions (2019). Some subsets of data include other statistically significant results none of which contradicts the astrological hypothesis.

The replication of findings from 2005 study is very compelling and strongly suggests that the astrological hypothesis is valid; that particular progressed synastry aspects are predictors of the onset of a significant romantic relationship and that the modern view of astrology (of both practitioners and sceptics) is in some key senses misperceived..


Iteration 1 (2005):

In progressed synastry we will see more trines of Venus at the beginning of relationships than squares of Venus in cases where individuals have the agency to choose their partner. So people will choose Venus trines over Venus squares because more people will prefer ease in relationships to tension.

After observing the results of iteration 1, this hypothesis was modified to reflect actual results.

Iteration 2 (2019):

In progressed and natal synastry we will see more trines, conjunctions and oppositions of Sun and Venus at the beginning of relationships than squares, semi-sextiles and quincunxes of Sun and Venus where the couple have the agency to choose their partner and a large enough pool of potential partners to make this choice meaningful.


Definition of Relationship

A relationship in this study is any intimate or romantic liaison lasting from one night to 70+ years. Included were any relationships between public figures whose biographical details (dates and places of birth) and pertinent information about their relationship (where and when they met and/or married and if they split up) could be researched via online or offline biographical sources. In iteration 1 any historical relationship that met the criteria for inclusion (described below) was included, but this was limited in iteration 2 to those where both partners were born after 1800CE. This is because researching OS/NS dates can create a number of research overheads. OS/NS was still an issue with some dates of birth in iteration 2, but was significantly reduced by discounting people born in the 18th Century or before.

Data Collection

The idea for this study can be traced to June 1997. The first set of 1300 public record relationships2 was collected from various online and offline biographical sources and researched between the years 2000 and 2004. Manual calculation of this data set was completed in 2005. Data gathering could be thematic (by looking at a relationship group for example: Presidents of the USA and all of their partners, the Beatles and all of their partners, 19th Century Pre-Raphaelite artists and their partners – or – the research might take the form of following a lead that would take the researcher through a web of interrelated couples. What follows is an example of how a ‘relationship web’ would be followed through online or offline sources. For example, in the early 2000s included lists of celebrity marriages by year, but further information would be obtained from other biographical sources (for example printed autobiographies and biographies). These sources would lead to webs of connectivity something like this:

An online source stated that Artie Shaw was married to Lana Turner and had dated Ava Gardner, more biographical research showed that Ava Gardner had married Frank Sinatra who had also dated Lana Turner who in turn had dated Fernando Lamas who had dated Esther Williams and who was also married to Arlene Dahl who had in turn been married to Lex Barker who  had also married Lana and the researcher is back at the beginning because the fact that Lana married Artie Shaw has already been recorded, but a new line of enquiry (or arm of the web) begins here because Artie Shaw also married Evelyn Keyes who dated David Niven, Mike Todd and so it goes on. It would then be necessary to follow all of the branches of this web relating to Niven, Sinatra, Gardner, Arlene Dahl, Lex Barker, Lamas, Williams and whoever else was included until the researcher arrived at a non-public relationship or someone for whom accurate data was unavailable (Mike Todd for instance was excluded because he had a number of different birth certificates). A new line of enquiry was then begun.
All of the data gathered like this in iteration 1 (pre-data cleanse) was initially manually calculated, then later calculated by computer.

Iteration 2 involved similar research methods, but the data used was gathered over a longer period of time and more information was gained from online sources which have become much richer since iteration 1.

Criteria for Inclusion

These relationship webs and themes were followed and new public or historical couples incorporated according to the following rules:

From 2004 to 2018 a second set of 1300 public relationships was collected and researched. As noted previously any with a pre-1800CE birthdate or any that contained any person who is not a public figure with a researchable history (e.g. if their place of birth was unavailable) were excluded. Times of birth are included where available, the source being (in iteration 1) the Astrodatabank 3.0 application and (in iteration 2) the Astrodatabank web site.

Altogether 728 individuals are in 1525 of the 2600 relationships. 1075 of the 2600 are couples where both partner is in only one relationship. 821 couples include at least one person who is in three or more relationships. The individual with the highest number of relationships is Merle Oberon (15) followed by Rod Stewart (11), Grace Kelly (10) and Ava Gardner (10). A population selected in order to prove a false point or unconsciously selected positive cases, would have a much higher occurrence of individual people in just one relationship than this one has5.

By looking at large numbers of relationships, aspects with 2.017 degree orbs were counted to see if they occurred more or less often in intimate relationship scenarios. The start-date (if available) or marriage date (if a reliable start-date was not available) was used as the point in time for progressed planetary positions.6 Any relationship that did not end in marriage had to have a start-date (which is usually just the year the relationship began) to be considered.

In total 1805 marriages were included and 795 love affairs which were not marriages at the times of calculation in 2005 and 2019.

The mean age difference between the couples in the real data is 2952.544 days (8 years) with a standard deviation of 3002.34 days. This is a high average and the reason is most probably a combination of choice and power. The wide difference in ages in many of the mid-20th Century couples may be associated with the power (of both men and women to choose partners rather than accept what is available in a small-pool) and ambition (some relationships enabled individuals to achieve more professionally). Other contributory factors, which may have affected a smaller proportion of the population, include the reduced availability of young men post-WW1 and post WW2, although in these celebrity relationships, this may be less relevant than in wider society.

Control Simulation (See Appendix 5 for details of the early and interim control experiments)

2019 Control #3 – 2.6 million false relationships

This method focusses upon the relationship of the 5200 individuals in their relationships as follows:

500 false partners were created for every subject in the study and given a random date of birth in the same year or two years before or after their actual partner’s birth date at the time of the real relationship. The start date used was the start date of the actual relationship. For Elizabeth Taylor this meant that for her first relationship in the study and for her then partner Richard Burton, 500 false partners were created for each of them with dates of birth in a five year period centred around 1925 (for Liz) and 1932 (for Richard). The start year for all of these was 1962. The same was done for all of the partners in all relationships.

This method results in a control of 2.6 million false relationships. The results were close to mathematically expected results. These results were used to calculate expected results throughout this paper.

Calculation of Expected Results

Expected results for 1300 relationships at 2.017 degrees were estimated using the following calculation:
1300/360*8.068*1 for conjunctions/oppositions 1300/360*8.068*2 for other aspects where the planets involved are different (SO-VE, VE-MA, SO-MA)

(((No of relationships/degrees in a circle) * total number of degrees included in the orb) * the number of times the aspect can happen in a circle)

1300/360*4.034 for conjunctions/oppositions 1300/360*4.034*2 for other aspects where the planets involved are the same (SO-SO, VE-VE, MA-MA)
I added the percentage difference associated with each planet/aspect combination arrived at via the 2.6 million control to arrive at an expected result for each aspect instance (this is the case for all of the tables in this paper).

Quantitative Analysis

Analysis is done by counting aspects of the following types: 0 degree conjunction, 30 degree semi-sextile, 60 degree sextile, 72 degree quintile, 90 degree square, 120 degree trine, 150 degree quincunx and 180 degree opposition using the 2.017 degree orb in the following categories or ‘aspect styles’:
natal – natal  (n-n), natal – progressed (n-p), progressed – natal  (p-n), progressed – progressed (p-p).

Calculation in this paper is of either natal and progressed synastry (includes n-n) or progressed synastry (excludes n-n) with results compared to expected results derived from the 2.6 million non-relationship results from 2019 Control#3.

Orbs Used

In order to see developing progressed aspects, to allow for noon-births and to eliminate the noise created by wide orbs, 2 degrees and 1 minute orbs were used at the outset (this was originally a manual study and uses noon-births in order to allow for a more substantial population). The 2 degree and one minute orb (as opposed to a 2 degree orb) was chosen because of the need to manually identify the aspects by visual inspection. This involves doing a mental calculation based on the distance between two bodies in the zodiac using data from an ephemeris (this is something that experienced astrologers can do quite quickly). It is far easier to calculate 00TAU00 to 02SCO00 (which is two degrees and 1 minute) as an opposition, than limit it to 00TAU00 – 01SCO59 (which is two degrees). Lack of certainty as to how the minutes of arc were calculated and rounded in the ephemeris was also a factor, so it was simpler and easier to consistently add the extra minute of arc.

Later, when a computer program was introduced to calculate aspects, this orb was retained. 1.017 and 3.017 degree orbs were also calculated.
The advantage of the 2.017 degree aperture is therefore to ensure that the importance of time and place of birth is minimised, not to place a theoretical limit on the effectiveness of the orb (although common usage suggests this should be an issue). The 1.017 degree aperture gives a good view of relationship results where all data parameters are accurately timed and the 3.017 degree aperture will show if the use of more noon-births7 in iteration 2 has impacted on the results in any categories by comparing the results at this orb with iteration 18.

Qualitative Analysis

It is possible to follow the course of a progressed synastry aspect to see if it matches important events in the relationship (see Appendix 4).

Chi-Square Test for Significance

Each synastry aspect result has been tested against the expected figure for the orb in question using a 2x2 Chi-Square test.9


Progressed Synastry Iteration 1 (2005) Results for SO-VE n=1300 at 2.017 degrees

Table 1. Results of the SO-VE progressed synastry aspect calculations for 1300 relationships at 2.017 degrees in iteration 1. Expected results are derived from the control of 2.6 million non-relationships

SO-VE aspects that include progressions in iteration 1 show clear significance for SO-VE trines, conjunctions and oppositions inside 2.017 degrees with significance in the order of p=0.01 to p=0.0007

The initial hypothesis, that we would see more Venus trines than squares has been proved, however these results informed us to predict excesses of SO-VE trines, conjunctions and oppositions in future tests. In the case of SO-VE trines, we would expect to see 174 in this set, but instead we see 238, whereas with sextiles we expect 175 and see 171. See Appendix 1 for the results for all other planet pairs in all aspect types in iteration 1.

Conjunctions and oppositions, which will always be expected to occur 50% as often as squares occur at very similar levels as each other and this is 66% as often as squares. This does not happen in control simulations and there is no natural explanation for this phenomenon in unrelated horoscopes.

Progressed Synastry Iteration 2 (2019) Results for SO-VE n=1300 at 2.017 degrees

Table 2. Results of the SO-VE progressed synastry aspect calculations for 1300 relationships at 2.017 degrees in iteration 2. Expected results are derived from the control of 2.6 million non-relationships

When the experiment was repeated in 2019, the same pattern was observed for SO-VE trines, conjunctions and oppositions inside 2.017 degrees. Significance for these aspects in this iteration is between p=0.04 and p=0.01. We also observe a significant lack of SO-VE quintiles and a reduction of SO-VE sextiles in this set.

SO-VE conjunctions and oppositions also continue to occur at a much higher proportionate rate than squares. In this iteration, oppositions match exactly the total in iteration 1, while there are only 6 fewer conjunctions in this set.

Love Affairs from Iteration 1 (2005) Results n=362 at 2.017 degrees

Table 3. Results for natal and progressed synastry aspects (includes n-n) at 2.017 degrees in 362 love affairs (relationships with no marriage date) in iteration 1

Love affairs tend to have more precise start-dates in this study, so that when we look at the smallest salient population (Tables 3 and 4), which are Love Affairs in iteration 1 (n=362) we still observe significance for SO VE trines. In iteration 1 for both natal and progressed aspects (Table 3) and progressed aspects without n-n (Table 4), SO VE trines occur at p=0.004. We can see the same trend in SO VE conjunctions and oppositions (which should occur half as often as the other aspects), but the numbers are too small to achieve significance. Conjunctions are again 66% the total of squares not the expected 50%, even in this small slice.10

Table 4. Results for progressed synastry aspects (excludes n-n) at 2.017 degrees in 362 love affairs (relationships with no marriage date) in iteration 1

Love Affairs from Iteration 2 (2019) Results n=433 at 2.017

Table 5. Results for natal and progressed synastry aspects (includes n-n) at 2.017 degrees in 433 love affairs (relationships with no marriage date) in iteration 2

There were 71 more love affairs in iteration 2 than in iteration 1. Significance is much higher for SO-VE trines (p=0.000002) when we combine natal and progressed aspects (see Table 5), but remain very high for SO-VE trine aspects that exclude n-n aspects (p=0.001) (see Table 6). Oppositions of SO-VE also show up as significant in these population slices. If we include n-n, we see 139 SO-VE trines where we expect to see 77, whereas with squares we expect 77 but observe 64. More startling is the fact that oppositions of SO VE (61) are almost equal to squares (64) and conjunctions are not too far behind (56).

Table 6. Results for progressed synastry aspects (excludes n-n) at 2.017 degrees in 433 love affairs (relationships with no marriage date) in iteration 2

When we combine love affairs from both iterations, we get 795 relationships. In this population slice, for natal and progressed aspects, VE-MA trines show significance at p=0.02, while SO VE trines show significance at p=0.000002

Reducing the Population to Demonstrate Hidden Effects

Because there appears to be a pronounced effect associated with SO-VE trines, conjunctions and oppositions in both iterations, the removal of the relationships that contain these aspects allows us to test the rest of the population without what appear to be its most influential aspects.

If the two iterations are combined, this results in a population of 2600. If the orb is expanded to 3.017 degrees and any relationships that contain any SO-VE trines, conjunctions and oppositions that are present between 0 and 3.017 degrees are removed, any influence these aspects, (now including outliers between 2 and 3 degrees) may have on the population is removed. In this reduced population of 1269 relationships, any other close aspect that may be affecting the results can be revealed. Here we observe that numbers of sextiles and quintiles have jumped, squares show slightly less than expected while quincunxes are much lower than expected, while semi-sextiles show slightly more than expected.

Table 7. Results for other SO VE aspects after the removal of those relationships that include a SO-VE trines, conjunctions or oppositions at 3.017 degrees. N = 1269. In this population slice sextiles and quintiles have become dominant.

We know why there has been a reduction in quincunxes in this view – their numbers are dependent on the presence of trines and oppositions.11 Semi sextiles are also dependent on conjunctions and sextiles in the same way. As we have removed the relationships containing the conjunctions, but not the sextiles, we have only halved the impact this removal would have on the semi-sextiles. Squares likewise are dependent on trines and sextiles (and in a slightly different way on quintiles). Sextiles and quintiles are far enough away (in degrees) from the removed variables to not be impacted by their removal, however, this does not explain their very significant excesses (sextiles p=0.008 and quintiles p=0.000004) beyond expectation, unless of course we invoke astrological ideas which label sextiles as ‘trines that require effort’ or ‘low power trines’. Likewise some astrologers mainly following the ideas of Dane Rudhyar and Leyla Rael in the 20th Century12 would classify a quintile of SO-VE as signifying a creative relationship (which I would take as a positive). In this respect, when the very high-power or common variables that occur most often (SO-VE trines, conjunctions and oppositions) are present, they drown out the other ‘actors’. When removed we reveal dependent and other important variables: a whole other layer of activity. I believe it would be difficult to consciously or unconsciously select a data set that included the excesses of SO-VE trines, conjunctions and oppositions and which also produces this effect when the ‘high power’ variables are removed.
We observed a significant lack of SO-VE quintiles in iteration 2 and a smaller reduction in iteration 1, however when we removed SO-VE trines, conjunctions and oppositions, we observed a highly significant excess of the same aspect type. This is partly accounted for by the fact that we have extended the orb to 3.017 degrees and partly because of an excess of n-n SO-VE quintiles.

Conclusion and Alternate Theory of Astrology

Review Comments

Because the results of this experiment are more significant than any previous experiment in astrology, doubts about the data, calculations, controls and selection are likely and must be addressed first. Peer review from colleagues was requested and one colleague suggested that bias in selection of data could be involved, but that was not possible based on the method employed and described above, and the high number of individuals in more than one relationship.13 Other possibilities were ‘bad data’, but simulations using actual false data have not produced this effect. Badly calculated data was also suggested, but much of this data was calculated manually (four times) and by specially written software with no disagreement between the two methods. Other suggestions that have arisen during earlier reviews are set out below for information:

It has been suggested that the choice of ‘public record relationships’ is not a narrow enough dataset, allowing a great deal of interpretation for who belongs to this group. This suggestion appears to be based upon what has been done in previous experiments (achieving lower/no significance). This category was chosen because it allows a wide spread of society, where timing and experiences are, more often than not, part of the public record. I believe that this experiment design (which benefits from comparatively accurate timing, transparency, a population possessing agency and choice and a high number of people in multiple relationships) should be taken as an exemplar case rather than an aberration. In other words equal consideration should be given to the idea that, this is how you should do astrological experiments as well as this approach may have inherent (as yet unspecified) limitations14. This method also enables researchers to create and analyse internal subsets based on constituent cohorts. I have created subsets including ‘love affairs’, ‘marriages’, ‘Presidents of the USA’, ‘men with choice in multiple relationships’ and ‘women with choice in multiple relationships’, all have produced different significant results. Conclusion: You can always narrow your dataset into subgroups with this kind of data.

It has been suggested by previous reviewers that retrograde motion may create a scenario where certain aspects last longer than others and a consequence is that we encounter them more often in both their natal and progressed styles. This has not been evidenced significantly in the simulations for any aspect involving Venus.
It was also suggested that the constraint of Venus Sun aspects in the natal chart (Venus is never more than 48 degrees from the Sun) may somehow extend to synastry charts. This was not evident in any simulation.15 Conclusion: Results are not produced because of a natural (undiscovered) anomaly.

None of the participants were aware of their inclusion in the experiment. It is highly unlikely that any participant in this study is/was aware of the concept of progressed synastry as it was not thought about seriously until the last two decades of the 20th Century and not named until 2003. The majority of the population of the 2005 study were in relationships prior to 1980. It is possible that some may be/have been aware of astrological ideas about compatibility and it may be possible that some may have been aware of ideas associating Venus with relationships. A number of known sceptics were included in the experiment. That a significant number of the population could be aware enough to affect the results demonstrated here is not feasible. Conclusion: Progressed synastry is sufficiently hidden to not be self-selectable in any relationship formed before 1980 and probably much later than this.

‘Natal synastry may be true, but progressed synastry is not’.16 Two reviewers have suggested the following:

“…natal synastry has been done for centuries, by thousands of astrologers… (it) has been treated in hundreds of serious synastry books; natal synastry has obtained statistical significance and (you are) the only researcher saying that progressed synastry is more important…”17

Natal synastry can achieve all of these things and also be either an artefact or a partial actor in synastry. None of these facts precludes progressed synastry. Progressed synastry is probably not an artefact of natal synastry because n-p and p-n 0, 120 and 180 degree aspects are independent of n-n and p-p aspects (which are connected) and still occur at levels p<=0.0518.

Of the 43 same-sex relationships in this study, 7 have n-p SO-VE trines inside 2.017 degrees at the outset of their relationship (p=0.07), none have n-n trines inside 2.017 degrees.


Astrology is true, and progressed synastry is a way of demonstrating this fact.

Close SO-VE trines, conjunctions and oppositions by progression are clearly the main actors in synastry. We can reject the null hypothesis after two iterations of the same experiment and related supporting qualitative evidence (see Appendix 4). It appears that people choose partners with whom they share these types of astrological aspect at the time they share the aspect, more than chance would predict.

While it is anticipated that there will be some scepticism associated with the very significant results obtained from these experiments, there are several reasons why these results are possible at this time:

The extraordinariness of astrology as an idea is inflated by the lack of a mechanism associated with the transference of value from the astrological variables (planets) to the subjects of the astrological effects (humans). This lack of a mechanism is somewhat alleviated if we reject a materialistic mechanism and consider the idea of a separate layer of consciousness which is not a by-product of nature.   If a separate consciousness that is independent of nature is not currently considered a viable intellectual option and if astrology is the means by which we describe and measure events in consciousness, and if astrology has been misperceived, then perhaps this chain of errors has inadvertently led to the relegation of consciousness to a mere by-product of the human brain and astrology as a mere by-product of human conceit. If so this experiment may contribute to the correction of these errors.


My thanks and appreciation goes to Allen Edwall for his collaborative suggestions and for programming the calculation and control programs associated with these studies. Thanks and appreciation to the following people who have shown interest and provided objective advice to me on this subject at points over the past two decades: Garry Phillipson, Robert Currey, David Cochrane, Kyle Pierce, Geoffrey Dean, Mike O’Neill and Kyosti Tarvainen who helped in devising two of the 2019 control groups and gave other advice for which I am grateful.

The following colleagues, who have now passed on, provided valuable counsel during iteration 1: Dennis Elwell, Robert Blaschke and Suitbert Ertel.





Appendix 1. Natal and Progressed Synastry Iteration 1 Results (includes N-N) for all planet pairs

In iteration 1 we also saw a very consistent lack of MA-MA trines. Note that VE-VE trines are 132% of VE-VE squares.

Table 8. Results for all planet pairs at 2.017 degrees – iteration 1 (2005)

Appendix 2. Natal and Progressed Synastry Iteration 2 Results (includes N-N) for all planet pairs

There is no lack of MA-MA trines in iteration 2. VE-MA oppositions are also significant at this level. In this iteration the numbers associated with all trines, conjunctions and oppositions involving Venus are consistent. Note the trend in VE-VE conjunctions and oppositions to be between 58% and 66% of VE-VE squares rather than the expected 50%. VE-VE trines are 123% of VE-VE squares rather than the expected 100%

Table 9. Results for all planet pairs for 2.017 degrees – iteration 2 (2019)

Appendix 3. Combined Results and p-Values for SO VE aspects in 2600 relationships

Table 10. Showing the combined results for SO VE aspects in iterations 1 and 2 (2600 relationships) at 2.017 degrees

Table 11. Showing the combined results for SO VE aspects in iterations 1 and 2 (2600 relationships) at 1.017 degrees

Table 12. Showing the combined results for SO VE aspects in iterations 1 and 2 (2600 relationships) at 3.017 degrees

Appendix 4. Qualitative Study – Example – describing and measuring an event in consciousness

I include this example (which is one of many) for several reasons, the first being that it was originally discovered using the scientific method. It is also a perfect example of its type and it would be necessary for those endeavouring to falsify the hypothesis and results herein to also explain the phenomenon of these ‘collision graphs’ which show astrological events (progressed aspects involving Venus) mapping to events in human lives. It also gives the opportunity for me to propose another experiment associated with the end of relationships that could be performed by an independent researcher.

Fig 1. Collision graph showing the progress of a p-p SO VE trine in the relationship of Bob Geldof and Paula Yates

This couple met in December 1976, married in 1986 and their relationship ended in 1995.

This example (Fig 1.) is quoted here because it was the first one that was noticed because the aspect (a P-P SO-VE trine aspect) represented was part of a peak in the early data set (2002). The aspect progress was followed through time, graphed and its curve was found to match the events of the relationship. Some time was then spent verifying the dates, times and places of birth of the couple. This is, therefore, an example of both an astrological event matching a human event and it is also an example of an astrological event (the graph itself) being found as a result of applying the scientific method. We now have many more instances of this phenomenon.

In Fig 2 (below) we observe another aspect, a VE-MA square (by progression) becoming exact at the crisis point in this relationship. I therefore hypothesise that if data is collected associated with divorces arising from crises such as this one (Yates’ affair with Michael Hutchence) that the experimenter will observe excess squares of VE-MA at the crises point in these relationships.

Fig 2. Collision graph showing the progress of a VE-MA square in the relationship of Bob Geldof and Paula Yates which coincided with the crisis in their marriage

Further Examples of this phenomenon

Fig 3. Collision graph showing another P-P SO VE trine aspect, this time between Paula Yates and Michael Hutchence, it is preceded by a SO VE square aspect. It is hypothesized that a SO VE square will create difficult romantic circumstances where the SO VE trine creates easy circumstances. While the VE MA square will introduce more intrinsic and difficult to overcome relationship problems.

NB Its odds of about a 2000 to 1 against that you will have a P-P SO VE trine within 2 degrees in two successive relationships. Paula and Bob both had this aspect in two successive relationships.

Fig 4. Collision graph showing another P-P SO VE trine between Prince Charles and Diana Princess of Wales

Fig 5. Collision graph showing Charles and Diana’s P-P Sun Venus trine (red) extending from 1980 to 1995, a Venus-Venus trine (blue dots) encapsulates the period between their engagement to the birth of Prince Harry, it is then followed by two Venus Mars aspects (purple dashed line is a square and dark red dashed line is an opposition) that correspond with the time of the breakdown of their marriage which continued on until the end of the two-degree Sun Venus trine in 1996.

Fig 6. Collision graph showing another P-P SO VE square (grey broken line) - difficult romantic circumstances preceding a P-P SO VE trine (red line) between Prince Charles and Camilla Parker-Bowles

NB - Prince Charles also beats odds of about 2000 to 1 to have two relationships in succession with the same P-P SO VE trine aspect inside two degrees.

Appendix 5 – Other Control Simulations

Early Controls

Early control groups were generated to confirm if the patterns evident in the manually calculated results were common, anomalous or possibly of natural origin. This involved generating 1000 random relationships21 using the Kepler Research program. This produced no anomalous results for compared charts for 0, 90, 120 or 180 degree aspects between combinations of SO, VE and MA.

Interim Control Experiments

2007 Control – 29900 false relationships

After a custom progressed synastry research program was created in 2007, a control of 29900 non-relationships was created using the following approach:

Partners in the first 650 of iteration 1 were swapped out with those in the second 650 and then moved the set down one 22 times to finish with a set of 29900 couples, none of whom were likely to have been in a relationship. The progressed date for each non-relationship was arrived at by altering all of the pre-1900 dates of birth to be post-1900 prior to calculation then adding 10920 days to each date of birth and selecting the median date between subject 1 and subject 2 as the start-date. This ensured that in the unlikely event that any of the non-couples formed by this method were actually ever in a relationship that their relationship start date was unlikely to match that of the non-relationship. There are dependencies between the natal and progressed planet positions in individuals, this is not the case for planet positions between couple’s charts.

2019 Control #1 – 191232 false relationships

In March 2019 the following method was used to create a large control.

Duplicates were removed from the study leaving 3984 unique individuals in the study. Each was isolated and placed into 49 new false relationships created for the first day in each month in a four year span either side of the real subject’s date of birth. The start date of the relationship was chosen as a random year in a 15 year span from the real person’s age 25 to age 40. This results in a control of 191232 false relationships.

This control produced results with very little deviation from mathematically expected results for all planet pairs except one. MA-MA conjunctions were seen twice as often as expected. This was because of the uniform distribution of the false birthdays created in the control. Mars’ Synodic cycle caused twice as many MA-MA conjunctions to be recorded as oppositions.

2019 Control #2 – 111552 false relationships

A further control was devised to avoid the effect of the Synodic cycle of Mars. Duplicates were removed from the study and each unique individual in the study was isolated and placed in 28 new false relationships created for a random day and random month in a span beginning 14 years before birth to 13 years after the birth of the real person. A random date was chosen at a point between the 32nd and 37th birthday of the real person and this was the start date for all of the false relationships. This meant that for – say – Elizabeth Taylor, we were simulating the synastry of 28 random people born between 1918 and 1945 in a time frame where she was in a real relationship with someone born on 10 Nov 1925.

There were 3984 real individuals used which resulted in a control group of 111552 false relationships.

The mean age difference in this control group was 2562.063 days (7 years) with a standard deviation of 1485.2 days.

This control also produced results very close to mathematically expected results for all planet pairs and aspect types, including MA-MA conjunctions.

Frequency of Results

Fig 7. Representative graph showing the proportionate differences in natal and progressed SO VE aspect frequency in each 100 relationships from 1 to 2600. Conjunction and opposition totals have been deliberately doubled to enable comparison with the frequency of the other aspects which occur twice (conj and opp both occur once). The flat blue line represents expected results for 2600 relationships SO VE trines, conjunctions and oppositions reach this point at around 1700 relationships.
This depiction also shows some dependencies, for instance Z is natal-natal squares which are observed at low rates in each 100, this is directly related to X which is natal Sun progressed venus sextiles. Likewise, U is natal-progressed conjunctions which is directly related to H natal-natal semisextiles. This is describing the 30:30 rule mentioned in the end notes.

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Rudhyar, D. & Rael, L. (1980) Astrological Aspects – A Process Oriented Approach, Aurora
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Holden, J. (1996) A History of Horoscopic Astrology, AFA


1This refers to Sun Aspecting Venus, but not Sun aspecting Sun. We see a similar trend in Venus aspecting Venus, but not the same levels of statistical significance.
21300 was the number of relationships I had gathered by February 2004. This was the point I started to write the book When Stars Collide. Because the calculation was going to be a manual exercise (and I did not know how big this exercise would be at the time) I estimated that 1300 would be a reasonable limit. I was also unaware at the time how much data would be available and how rare and accurate this data might be.
3Because these studies are based on historical data, this means that the data used is often improvable. Each iteration contains up to 10400 variables which may change outcomes (date, time, place of birth and start date and/or marriage date * 1300). Any or all of this data can be subject to research to update the precision of each variable. If the date of birth is wrong, this has the biggest impact, while place and time of birth have relatively small impacts. If marriage date is used and the couple's courtship lasted longer than 3 years, this will also impact the results as the salient astrological conditions can change a great deal over four years. In 2018 an exercise to cleanse data in iteration 1 of this study was started. This involved the correction of six birth dates and the removal of the relationships of two individuals (who were in a total of 19 relationships) where their correct birth dates could not be resolved. These 19 relationships were replaced with 19 blind-collected new relationships. All of the data presented here is post-cleanse data and so will differ slightly with previously published results.
4A small number of pre-1800CE relationships were included in the first iteration the earliest including a few births in the 1400s (Catherine of Aragon, Henry VIII and Diane de Poitiers).
The second iteration in 2018 included some further requirements. Data gathered after 2004 included a number of sets of types of relationships that included, in some cases, people who may not be described as public figures, specifically members of the Kennedy family in the US and members of the European aristocracy. These were not used in iteration 2. If the relationship included a person whose date and/or place of birth was only available via genealogical records by virtue of them marrying into a family (and they have not sought to create a public persona based on this for political or business reasons), they are not considered a public figure (unless they are now an historic figure of interest) and as such removed from the second iteration.
Any relationship where one of the partners was born before 1st Jan 1800 was also not included in iteration 2. A considerable amount of effort can be expended checking OS and NS dates, and because many of the study population born pre-1800 would be US or European, Julian/Gregorian calendar changes would be an issue. While there are some relationships that include Eastern Europeans born in the 1800s and early 1900s whose dates of birth were recorded in the Julian Calendar, it is a smaller problem to research these dates due to the smaller numbers involved. The sources of such data is biographical information held in a variety of media, mostly in 2019 the salient information can be obtained online. At the turn of the 21st century, there was comparatively less information available online and more biographical information for iteration 1 was gleaned from paper sources such as autobiographies, biographies, journals, encyclopaedia, directories, magazines and newspapers.
5This study began as a manual exercise and both a qualitative as well as quantitative investigation, the relationships were calculated, analysed and included one after another (starting with #1 Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton in 2000 through to #2600 Jeff Bezos and Lauren Sanchez in 2018) at the same time (which means I could see the results of individual examples). Later for relationships between #1700 and #2600, many more were blind-collected, i.e. I did not see any aspects prior to calculation. This was not the case in all cases (exceptions being those who became subject of articles or who were included in the content of the two talks I gave on this subject in 2008 and 2018), however this number is small (<50) compared with those who were not subject to any qualitative analysis (>800).
6At certain time periods, for example in the 20th Century during WW2, short courtships were common. Also the movie studio bosses in Hollywood, under pressure from Hays and others in government between the wars, preferred to not adversely affect public ratings, so encouraged any couples who came together publicly to marry. As a large number of the marriages in this study involve film stars and many span the 1920s to the 1960s, we can be fairly sure that many were < 2 year courtships. The progressed relationship aspects under scrutiny in this study (those of Venus, Sun and Mars), will usually last for a minimum of five years, although different retrograde scenarios can alter this down to <3 years and up to >20 years. However, studies which just look at marriage dates are not sufficiently precise to test this hypothesis. See A 22nd Century Science – How to Demonstrate that Astrology is True, Paul Westran, Amazon Createspace, 2018, pp211-212 for an example of how the four-year secret courtship in the 1930s of a famous Hollywood couple impacted on progressed synastry factors.
7Noon-births means noon-at-place-of-birth in all cases where a time of birth is unavailable
8For example, in Iteration 1, which has a higher instance of couples with known times of birth, we observe 84 N-P SO VE trines inside 2.017 degrees. In Iteration 2 with more noon-births we see only 68 at 2.017 degrees. However at 3.017 degrees we see the ratio for this aspect between Iterations has closed to 102:100 suggesting the possibility that if we had included more times of birth in iteration 2, the number of SO VE N-P trine aspects would increase above 68.
9 Chi-Square Test Calculator. (2019, March 12). Retrieved from
10It is also important to note that in even smaller populations, such as the 15 relationships of Merle Oberon, we also see the same pattern emerge. Even in this small population natal and progressed SO VE trines achieve p = 0.058 (or p =0.129 with Yates correction).

If we calculate expected results for the following individuals (who are in multiple relationships in the study) and then count 2.017 degree Sun Venus trines, conjunctions and oppositions we get the following results:

Merle Oberon Expected 5.3 Observed 11
Grace Kelly Expected 3.52 Observed 7
Liz Taylor Expected 2.76 Observed 6
Marilyn Monroe Expected 1.42 Observed 3
Rita Hayworth Expected 2.4 Observed 5
George Sand Expected 2.08 Observed 6
Donald Trump Expected 1.42 Observed 5

The same effect is evident for Venus Mars inside 2.017 degrees in some people

Rod Stewart Expected 3.52 Observed 8
Frank Sinatra Expected 3.2 Observed 5
Brigitte Bardot Expected 1.42 Observed 6
Bertrand Russell Expected 1.42 Observed 6
George Clooney Expected 2.44 Observed 5
Clark Gable Expected 1.42 Observed 3

Note the preference of men for VM and women for SV.

11Dependencies between aspects in progressed synastry exist. In this study this is detectable due to what we can term the 30-30 rule. Because SO, VE and MA progress at rates between 0.75 and 1.25 degrees per year, this equates to the same rate per year in the progressed chart. Because many relationships begin between the ages of 20 and 40 in life, the chances that a planet pair have progressed by about 30 degrees (roughly 1 degree = 1 solar day = 1 year in life) by the start of the relationship is high. N-N quincunxes may progress to become progressed oppositions or natal trines may progress to become progressed quincunxes. This has implications for any aspects that occur above expected rates as follows - if a conjunction occurs at higher than expected rates then this will lead to different types of semi-sextile aspect also being present in the population. The actual distribution is affected as follows:
Excess natal semi-sextiles result from high numbers of N-P and P-N conjunctions, whereas excesses of N-P and P-N semi-sextiles result from excesses of N-N and P-P conjunctions. Likewise the relationship between quincunxes and trines and oppositions. Because there are far more trines, conjunctions and oppositions than sextiles (which are also connected to semi-sextiles by the same rule) and because trines occur twice as often as conjunctions, when we remove trines, conjunctions and oppositions we see quincunxes fall to below expected levels, where semi sextiles fall to expected levels. If we remove the relationships that include the SO-VE sextiles we get a similar (lesser) phenomenon for semi-sextile totals. This clearly shows that a relationship exists between the aspects based upon the time frame of the progression.

12Dane Rudhyar and Leyla Rael, Astrological Aspects – A Process Oriented Approach, Aurora, 1980, p99
13If we look at a subset of ‘people in three or more relationships in the study’, we find that SO-VE trines and oppositions are still significantly in excess. The trend is the same for conjunctions, but numbers are too low to achieve significance.

14 I believe there is a need to clearly articulate any perceived limitations of this data category. I hear vague points mainly associated with ‘what usually constitutes a research set’, but none that casts or establishes any doubt on the efficacy of this experiment. It should be noted that this is the first experiment of its kind. Previous synastry experiments are partially analogous to this experiment and the experiences of previous researchers are therefore partially relevant.

15 If either of these suggestions were true, it would not necessarily be a negative for the astrological hypothesis, it could also mean that the aspects that synastry expects (SO-VE trines, conjunctions and oppositions) happen in relationships in a natural way rather than one requiring consciousness to play a role – or – it could explain how astrological attribution has come about. However, there is no support for either suggestion.

16The relationship between natal synastry and progressed synastry is complex. While it is impossible to objectively demonstrate natal synastry except through statistical correlations, the addition of progressed synastry muddies the water for natal synastry. N-n and p-p aspects are connected, but it is difficult to discern which aspects are the actors and which (if any) are artefacts. This is not the case with n-p and p-n aspects which also appear in significant numbers. We can therefore assume that because two styles of progressed synastry can be confirmed that the other one is also likely to be acting. We are also able to use collision graphs as confirmations of progressed synastry aspects; we cannot do this for natal synastry aspects.

17I have encountered some resistance from established astrologers to the idea that natal synastry may not be ‘true’, and alternatively may be a reflection or artefact of progressed synastry. This is by no means certain and should not be inferred, but it is possible to demonstrate progressed synastry and we are unable to do the same with natal synastry except via statistics. Arguments from authorities, as mentioned here, have been cited, including the antiquity of synastry. I do not recognise any authorities in this space and I hope this is the case for anyone else evaluating these new ideas.

18See Westran, A 22nd Century Science, pages 92-94 for a case study in the difference between natal and progressed synastry.

19Other sets of data collected in the past have mainly constituted marriages and have been gathered without a view to testing progressions.

20I suggest that progressed synastry provides a solution to the astrological problem in a way that is analogous to the relationship of ‘M-theory’ to the various superstring theories. M-theory effectively unifies the various superstring theories and suggests that all superstring theories are ‘the same thing viewed from different angles’. It is my view that astrology may have been viewed from obscured angles for the past several millennia, but that if viewed from the correct dynamic perspective, it will respond to good-quality experimentation, present as a science and allow us to make definite predictions about future experimental observations.

21Details of the timings associated with this relationship can be found in Paula, Michael and Bob – Everything you know is wrong, Gerry Agar, Michael O’Mara Books 2003. Birth data: Robert Frederick Zenon Geldof, born on 5 October 1951 at 14:20hrs Dublin, Ireland, 53n20, 6w15, RR A; Paula Elizabeth Yates Born on 24 April 1959 at 00:20hrs Colwyn Bay, Wales, 53n18, 3w43, RR B (her mother's autobiographical recollection)
22I generated 10 * 1000 pairs for each aspect under scrutiny. The Kepler research module is such that I would pair two persons of either gender; a business with a person or two businesses together.




Amendment history

v2.0 Online version added examples to Appendix 1, added representative graph, added 821 multi rel table

v1.2 Corrected value from 1995 to 1525. Added information on 821 multiples. Corrected value 782 to 728. 25 July 2019

v1.1.2 Corrected value 796 to 795 17 June 2019

v1.1 Updated Bibliography 10 June 2019

v1.0 Release version after review comments 21 May 2019

v0.5 14th April 2019

v.04 5th April 2019

v.03 25th March 2019

v.02 17 March 2019

v0.1 10th March 2019